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They are the oldest objects in the Galaxy and so must have been among the first formed. That this was the case is also indicated by the fact that the globular clusters tend to have much smaller amounts of heavy elements than do the stars in the plane of the Galaxy, e.
Composed of stars belonging to the extreme Population II see below Stars and stellar populations , as well as the high-latitude halo stars, these nearly spherical assemblages apparently formed before the material of the Galaxy flattened into the present thin disk.
As their component stars evolved, they gave up some of their gas to interstellar space. This gas was enriched in the heavy elements i. Hydrogen and helium have always been the major constituents , but heavy elements have gradually grown in importance.
The present interstellar gas contains elements heavier than helium at a level of about 2 percent by mass, while the globular clusters contain as little as 0.
These objects are the open clusters, so called because they generally have a more open, loose appearance than typical globular clusters. Open clusters are distributed in the Galaxy very similarly to young stars.
They are highly concentrated along the plane of the Galaxy and slowly decrease in number outward from its centre.
The large-scale distribution of these clusters cannot be learned directly because their existence in the Milky Way plane means that dust obscures those that are more than a few thousand light-years from the Sun.
By analogy with open clusters in external galaxies similar to the Galaxy, it is surmised that they follow the general distribution of integrated light in the Galaxy, except that there are probably fewer of them in the central areas.
The brightest open clusters are considerably fainter than the brightest globular clusters. The peak absolute luminosity appears to be about 50, times the luminosity of the Sun, but the largest percentage of known open clusters has a brightness equivalent to solar luminosities.
Masses can be determined from the dispersion in the measured velocities of individual stellar members of clusters. Most open clusters have small masses on the order of 50 solar masses.
Their total populations of stars are small, ranging from tens to a few thousand. Open clusters have diameters of only 2 or 3 to about 20 light-years, with the majority being less than 5 light-years across.
In structure they look very different from globular clusters, though they can be understood in terms of similar dynamical models. The most important structural difference is their small total mass and relative looseness, which result from their comparatively large core radii.
These two features have disastrous consequences as far as their ultimate fate is concerned, because open clusters are not sufficiently gravitationally bound to be able to withstand the disruptive tidal effects in the Galaxy see star cluster: Open clusters.
Judging from the sample of open clusters within 3, light-years of the Sun, only half of them can withstand such tidal forces for more than million years, and a mere 2 percent have life expectancies as high as 1 billion years.
Measured ages of open clusters agree with the conclusions that have been reached about their life expectancies.
They tend to be young objects; only a few are known to exceed 1 billion years in age. Most are younger than million years, and some are 1 or 2 million years old.
Ages of open clusters are determined by comparing their stellar membership with theoretical models of stellar evolution.
Because all the stars in a cluster have very nearly the same age and chemical composition , the differences between the member stars are entirely the result of their different masses.
As time progresses after the formation of a cluster, the massive stars, which evolve the fastest, gradually disappear from the cluster, becoming white dwarf stars or other underluminous stellar remnants.
Theoretical models of clusters show how this effect changes the stellar content with time, and direct comparisons with real clusters give reliable ages for them.
To make this comparison, astronomers use a diagram the colour-magnitude diagram that plots the temperatures of the stars against their luminosities.
Colour-magnitude diagrams have been obtained for more than 1, open clusters, and ages are thus known for this large sample. Because open clusters are mostly young objects, they have chemical compositions that correspond to the enriched environment from which they formed.
Most of them are like the Sun in their abundance of the heavy elements, and some are even richer. For instance, the Hyades , which compose one of the nearest clusters, have almost twice the abundance of heavy elements as the Sun.
It became possible in the s to discover very young open clusters that previously had been entirely hidden in deep, dusty regions. Using infrared array detectors, astronomers found that many molecular clouds contained very young groups of stars that had just formed and, in some cases, were still forming.
Even younger than open clusters, stellar associations are very loose groupings of young stars that share a common place and time of origin but that are not generally tied closely enough together gravitationally to form a stable cluster.
Stellar associations are limited strictly to the plane of the Galaxy and appear only in regions of the system where star formation is occurring, notably in the spiral arms.
They are very luminous objects. The brightest are even brighter than the brightest globular clusters, but this is not because they contain more stars; instead it is the result of the fact that their constituent stars are very much brighter than the stars constituting globular clusters.
The most luminous stars in stellar associations are very young stars of spectral types O and B. In this scenario, suggested by numerical simulations of the dynamics of the different spiral arms, the outer pattern would form an outer pseudoring ,  and the two patterns would be connected by the Cygnus arm.
Outside of the major spiral arms is the Monoceros Ring or Outer Ring , a ring of gas and stars torn from other galaxies billions of years ago.
However, several members of the scientific community recently restated their position affirming the Monoceros structure is nothing more than an over-density produced by the flared and warped thick disk of the Milky Way.
Although the disk contains dust that obscures the view in some wavelengths, the halo component does not. Active star formation takes place in the disk especially in the spiral arms, which represent areas of high density , but does not take place in the halo, as there is little cool gas to collapse into stars.
Discoveries in the early 21st century have added dimension to the knowledge of the Milky Way's structure.
With the discovery that the disk of the Andromeda Galaxy M31 extends much farther than previously thought,  the possibility of the disk of the Milky Way extending farther is apparent, and this is supported by evidence from the discovery of the Outer Arm extension of the Cygnus Arm   and of a similar extension of the Scutum—Centaurus Arm.
Similarly, with the discovery of the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy , it was found that a ring of galactic debris from its interaction with the Milky Way encircles the Galactic disk.
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey of the northern sky shows a huge and diffuse structure spread out across an area around 5, times the size of a full moon within the Milky Way that does not seem to fit within current models.
The collection of stars rises close to perpendicular to the plane of the spiral arms of the Milky Way. The proposed likely interpretation is that a dwarf galaxy is merging with the Milky Way.
In addition to the stellar halo, the Chandra X-ray Observatory , XMM-Newton , and Suzaku have provided evidence that there is a gaseous halo with a large amount of hot gas.
The halo extends for hundreds of thousand of light-years, much farther than the stellar halo and close to the distance of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds.
The mass of this hot halo is nearly equivalent to the mass of the Milky Way itself. Observations of distant galaxies indicate that the Universe had about one-sixth as much baryonic ordinary matter as dark matter when it was just a few billion years old.
However, only about half of those baryons are accounted for in the modern Universe based on observations of nearby galaxies like the Milky Way.
Boehle and associates found a smaller value of There are about stars brighter than absolute magnitude 8.
This illustrates the fact that there are far more faint stars than bright stars: in the entire sky, there are about stars brighter than apparent magnitude 4 but The apex of the Sun's way, or the solar apex , is the direction that the Sun travels through space in the Milky Way.
The general direction of the Sun's Galactic motion is towards the star Vega near the constellation of Hercules , at an angle of roughly 60 sky degrees to the direction of the Galactic Center.
The Sun's orbit about the Milky Way is expected to be roughly elliptical with the addition of perturbations due to the Galactic spiral arms and non-uniform mass distributions.
In addition, the Sun passes through the Galactic plane approximately 2. These oscillations were until recently thought to coincide with mass lifeform extinction periods on Earth.
At this speed, it takes around 1, years for the Solar System to travel a distance of 1 light-year, or 8 days to travel 1 AU astronomical unit.
The stars and gas in the Milky Way rotate about its center differentially , meaning that the rotation period varies with location.
As is typical for spiral galaxies, the orbital speed of most stars in the Milky Way does not depend strongly on their distance from the center.
This is unlike the situation within the Solar System, where two-body gravitational dynamics dominate, and different orbits have significantly different velocities associated with them.
The rotation curve shown in the figure describes this rotation. Toward the center of the Milky Way the orbit speeds are too low, whereas beyond 7 kpcs the speeds are too high to match what would be expected from the universal law of gravitation.
If the Milky Way contained only the mass observed in stars, gas, and other baryonic ordinary matter, the rotation speed would decrease with distance from the center.
However, the observed curve is relatively flat, indicating that there is additional mass that cannot be detected directly with electromagnetic radiation.
This inconsistency is attributed to dark matter. Alternatively, a minority of astronomers propose that a modification of the law of gravity may explain the observed rotation curve.
The Milky Way began as one or several small overdensities in the mass distribution in the Universe shortly after the Big Bang. Nearly half the matter in the Milky Way may have come from other distant galaxies.
Within a few billion years of the birth of the first stars, the mass of the Milky Way was large enough so that it was spinning relatively quickly. Due to conservation of angular momentum , this led the gaseous interstellar medium to collapse from a roughly spheroidal shape to a disk.
Therefore, later generations of stars formed in this spiral disk. Most younger stars, including the Sun, are observed to be in the disk. Since the first stars began to form, the Milky Way has grown through both galaxy mergers particularly early in the Milky Way's growth and accretion of gas directly from the Galactic halo.
Direct accretion of gas is observed in high-velocity clouds like the Smith Cloud. This lack of recent major mergers is unusual among similar spiral galaxies; its neighbour the Andromeda Galaxy appears to have a more typical history shaped by more recent mergers with relatively large galaxies.
According to recent studies, the Milky Way as well as the Andromeda Galaxy lie in what in the galaxy color—magnitude diagram is known as the "green valley", a region populated by galaxies in transition from the "blue cloud" galaxies actively forming new stars to the "red sequence" galaxies that lack star formation.
Star-formation activity in green valley galaxies is slowing as they run out of star-forming gas in the interstellar medium. In simulated galaxies with similar properties, star formation will typically have been extinguished within about five billion years from now, even accounting for the expected, short-term increase in the rate of star formation due to the collision between both the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy.
Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Milky Way, which thus set a lower limit on the age of the Milky Way.
The ages of individual stars in the Milky Way can be estimated by measuring the abundance of long-lived radioactive elements such as thorium and uranium , then comparing the results to estimates of their original abundance, a technique called nucleocosmochronology.
These yield values of about By measuring the temperatures of the coolest of these white dwarfs and comparing them to their expected initial temperature, an age estimate can be made.
With this technique, the age of the globular cluster M4 was estimated as Age estimates of the oldest of these clusters gives a best fit estimate of In November , astronomers reported the discovery of one of the oldest stars in the universe.
About The discovery of the star in the Milky Way galaxy suggests that the galaxy may be at least 3 billion years older than previously thought.
Several individual stars have been found in the Milky Way's halo with measured ages very close to the In , a star in the galactic halo, HE , was estimated to be about As the oldest known object in the Milky Way at that time, this measurement placed a lower limit on the age of the Milky Way.
The line strengths yield abundances of different elemental isotopes , from which an estimate of the age of the star can be derived using nucleocosmochronology.
According to observations utilizing adaptive optics to correct for Earth's atmospheric distortion, stars in the galaxy's bulge date to about The age of stars in the galactic thin disk has also been estimated using nucleocosmochronology.
Measurements of thin disk stars yield an estimate that the thin disk formed 8. These measurements suggest there was a hiatus of almost 5 billion years between the formation of the galactic halo and the thin disk.
The satellite galaxies surrounding the Milky way are not randomly distributed but seemed to be the result of a break-up of some larger system producing a ring structure , light-years in diameter and 50, light-years wide.
The Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy are a binary system of giant spiral galaxies belonging to a group of 50 closely bound galaxies known as the Local Group , surrounded by a Local Void, itself being part of the Virgo Supercluster.
Surrounding the Virgo Supercluster are a number of voids, devoid of many galaxies, the Microscopium Void to the "north", the Sculptor Void to the "left", the Bootes Void to the "right" and the Canes-Major Void to the South.
These voids change shape over time, creating filamentous structures of galaxies. The Virgo Supercluster, for instance, is being drawn towards the Great Attractor ,  which in turn forms part of a greater structure, called Laniakea.
Two smaller galaxies and a number of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group orbit the Milky Way. The largest of these is the Large Magellanic Cloud with a diameter of 14, light-years.
It has a close companion, the Small Magellanic Cloud. The stream is thought to have been dragged from the Magellanic Clouds in tidal interactions with the Milky Way.
The smallest dwarf galaxies of the Milky Way are only light-years in diameter. There may still be undetected dwarf galaxies that are dynamically bound to the Milky Way, which is supported by the detection of nine new satellites of the Milky Way in a relatively small patch of the night sky in In researchers reported that most satellite galaxies of the Milky Way lie in a very large disk and orbit in the same direction.
This discrepancy is still not fully explained. In January , researchers reported that the heretofore unexplained warp in the disk of the Milky Way has now been mapped and found to be a ripple or vibration set up by the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds as they orbit the Milky Way, causing vibrations when they pass through its edges.
However, in a computer model, the movement of these two galaxies creates a dark matter wake that amplifies their influence on the larger Milky Way.
In 3 to 4 billion years, there may be an Andromeda—Milky Way collision , depending on the importance of unknown lateral components to the galaxies' relative motion.
If they collide, the chance of individual stars colliding with each other is extremely low, but instead the two galaxies will merge to form a single elliptical galaxy or perhaps a large disk galaxy  over the course of about a billion years.
Although special relativity states that there is no "preferred" inertial frame of reference in space with which to compare the Milky Way, the Milky Way does have a velocity with respect to cosmological frames of reference.
One such frame of reference is the Hubble flow , the apparent motions of galaxy clusters due to the expansion of space.
Individual galaxies, including the Milky Way, have peculiar velocities relative to the average flow. Thus, to compare the Milky Way to the Hubble flow, one must consider a volume large enough so that the expansion of the Universe dominates over local, random motions.
A large enough volume means that the mean motion of galaxies within this volume is equal to the Hubble flow. Another reference frame is provided by the cosmic microwave background CMB.
In western culture, the name "Milky Way" is derived from its appearance as a dim un-resolved "milky" glowing band arching across the night sky.
In Greek mythology , the Milky Way was formed after the trickster god Hermes suckled the infant Heracles at the breast of Hera , the queen of the gods, while she was asleep.
The Milky Way, or "milk circle", was just one of 11 "circles" the Greeks identified in the sky, others being the zodiac , the meridian , the horizon , the equator , the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn , Arctic and Antarctic circles , and two colure circles passing through both poles.
In his view, the Milky Way is celestial. This idea would be influential later in the Islamic world. Because of this, it was likened to milk in color.
Proof of the Milky Way consisting of many stars came in when Galileo Galilei used a telescope to study the Milky Way and discovered that it is composed of a huge number of faint stars.
Wright and Kant also conjectured that some of the nebulae visible in the night sky might be separate "galaxies" themselves, similar to our own.
Kant referred to both the Milky Way and the "extragalactic nebulae" as "island universes", a term still current up to the s. The first attempt to describe the shape of the Milky Way and the position of the Sun within it was carried out by William Herschel in by carefully counting the number of stars in different regions of the visible sky.
He produced a diagram of the shape of the Milky Way with the Solar System close to the center. In , Lord Rosse constructed a new telescope and was able to distinguish between elliptical and spiral-shaped nebulae.
He also managed to make out individual point sources in some of these nebulae, lending credence to Kant's earlier conjecture. In , studying the proper motions of stars, Jacobus Kapteyn reported that these were not random, as it was believed in that time; stars could be divided into two streams, moving in nearly opposite directions.
Searching the photographic record, he found 11 more novae. Curtis noticed that these novae were, on average, 10 magnitudes fainter than those that occurred within the Milky Way.
As a result, he was able to come up with a distance estimate of , parsecs. He became a proponent of the "island universes" hypothesis, which held that the spiral nebulae were independent galaxies.
To support his claim that the Great Andromeda Nebula is an external galaxy, Curtis noted the appearance of dark lanes resembling the dust clouds in the Milky Way, as well as the significant Doppler shift.
The controversy was conclusively settled by Edwin Hubble in the early s using the Mount Wilson observatory 2. This galaxy belongs to the Local Group of three large galaxies and over 50 smaller galaxies.
The Milky Way is one of the largest galaxies in the group, second to the Andromeda Galaxy. Therefore, present estimates of the total number are uncertain.
This can be compared to the one trillion 10 12 stars of the neighbouring Andromeda Galaxy. The stellar disc of the Milky Way does not have a sharp edge, a radius beyond which there are no stars.
Rather, the number of stars drops smoothly with distance from the centre of the Galaxy. Beyond a radius of about 40, light years, the number of stars drops much faster, for reasons that are not understood.
Extending beyond the stellar disk is a much thicker disk of gas. Recent observations indicate that the gaseous disk of the Milky Way has a thickness of around light years—twice the previously accepted value.
The Galactic halo extends outward, but is limited in size by the orbits of two Milky Way satellites, the Large and the Small Magellanic Clouds , whose closest approach is at about , light years.
The galactic disc, which bulges outward at the galactic center, has a diameter of 70—, light years. The exact distance from the Sun to the galactic center is debated.
The latest estimates give distances to the Galactic center of 25—28, light years. Movement of material around the galactic center shows that it has a compact object of very large mass.
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Mars erfunden. Seit gibt es den Schokoriegel so wie wir ihn kennen. Die Konsistenz ist zwar ähnlich, der Geschmack der Cremefüllung hat sich aber verändert, sowie die Farbe.
In den USA gab es jene Veränderung nicht. Von wegen. Die ersten beiden Zutaten sind natürlich: Zucker und Glukosesirup, was nur eine andere Bezeichnung für Zucker ist.
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Der Zuckeranteil beläuft sich auf rund 15 Gramm Zucker. Das entspricht etwa sechs Stück Würfelzucker. Um die Creme besonders geschmeidig zu kriegen, wird dem Riegel Emulgator in Form von Sojalecithinen untergemischt.
Lecithin sorgt dafür, dass sich Fett und Wasser in Lebensmitteln nicht entmischen und Knet- und Formeigenschaften verbessert werden.
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Noch Fragen Die Wissenscommunity vom stern. Petzold: DasMemo. Hans-Martin Tillack Geschichten hinter den Geschichten.Norma and Outer arm Along with extension discovered in Doom Kostenlos. H II regions consist Cozyno Casino of hydrogen, but they also contain measurable amounts of other gases. Bibcode : AJ Archived from Molly Bloom Jordan Bloom original on March 23, The largest and most massive star clusters are the globular clusters, so called because of their roughly spherical Milky Way Inhaltsstoffe. Archived from Easymarkets original on September 24, A New Map of the Milky Way. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey of the northern sky shows a huge and diffuse structure spread out across an area around 5, times the size of a full moon within the Milky Way that does not seem to fit within current models. See the entries for "Milky Way" and "galaxy". The Galaxy contains more than globular clusters the exact number is uncertain because of obscuration by dust in the Milky Way band, which probably prevents some globular clusters from being seen. Because all the stars in a cluster have very nearly the same age and chemical compositionthe differences between the member Darkorbot are entirely the result of their different masses. Ein Attest aus Deutschland wird nicht anerkannt. Archived from the original on September 8, Direct accretion of gas is observed in high-velocity clouds like the Smith Cloud. Archived from the original on March 8, Select Bet occurs primarily because of interstellar dustwhich obscures and reddens starlight. The discovery of the star in the Milky Way galaxy suggests Dog Black the galaxy may be at least 3 billion years older than previously thought. Ina star in the galactic halo, HEwas estimated to be about Milky Way Milky Way Riegel: ,0 Kalorien (kcal) und Inhaltsstoffe - das-ist-drin. The Milky Way Galaxy is most significant to humans because it is home sweet home. But when it comes down to it, our galaxy is a typical barred spiral, much like billions of other galaxies in the. Get nutrition information for Milky Way items and over , other foods (including over 3, brands). Track calories, carbs, fat, sodium, sugar & 14 other nutrients. Only three galaxies outside our own Milky Way Galaxy can be seen without a telescope, and appear as fuzzy patches in the sky with the naked eye. The closest galaxies that we can see without a telescope are the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. These satellite galaxies of the Milky Way can be seen from the southern hemisphere. Even they are about , light years from us. The Milky Way is the second-largest galaxy in the Local Group (after the Andromeda Galaxy), with its stellar disk approximately ,–, light-years (52–61 kpc) in diameter and, on average, approximately 1, ly ( kpc) thick. The Milky Way is approximately billion times the mass of the Sun.